The parliament is called for a meeting by the President. The Indian parliament meets 03 times a year. Although the maximum gap between the two sessions of the Parliament cannot be more than 06 months according to the constitution. In other words, the Parliament should meet at least twice a year. The three sessions of the Indian Parliament are:
1. The Budget Session (February to May)
2. The Monsoon Session (July to September)
3. The Winter Session (November to December)
How to remember, always leave one month i.e. first ‘January ‘then after Budget Session leave ‘June’, and then after Monsoon Session leave ‘October’. The first session is for four months, the second session for three months and the third session for two months. In the starting of a year, we need money hence Budget Session. Then comes the monsoon in India hence Monsoon Session and then comes the Winter hence Winter Session.
There are three sessions of parliament as we discussed above. One session of the Parliament consists of may meetings. Each meeting of a day consists of two sittings that are, a morning sitting from 11 am to 1 pm and post-lunch sitting from 2 pm to 6 pm. There are three ways to terminate the Parliament i.e. by Adjournment, by Adjournment Sine Die and by Dissolution.
An adjournment suspends the work in a sitting for a specified time, which may be hours, days or weeks.
Adjournment Sine Die
Adjournment SIne Die and Prorogation are related to each other. The Adjournment Sine Die is first step and the And the second step is Prorogation.
When the Presiding officer (Speaker in case of Lok Sabha and Chairman in case of Rajya Sabha) feels that the matters of a particular session have been properly discussed and it is time to bring the recess of the session. It declares Adjournment Sine Die means terminating a sitting of Parliament for an indefinite period. This is the first step.
The Presiding officer declares the House adjourned sine die when the business of a session is completed. Within the next few days, the President issues notification for the prorogation of the session. However, the President can also prorogue the House while in session on the advice of the Prime Minister. So, this was the second step.
Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved because it is a permanent house. Only the Lok sabha is subject to dissolution. The prorogation only ends the session of the house while dissolution ends the very life of the existing house and a new house is constituted after general elections are held. The dissolution of the Lok Sabha may take place in either of two ways:
- Automatic dissolution i.e. on the expiry of its tenure of five years; or
- Whenever the President decides to dissolve the house on the advise of the President.
It refers to the last session of the existing Lok Sabha after a new Lok Sabha has been elected. Those members of the existing Lok Sabha who could not get re-elected to the new Lok Sabha are called lame-ducks. whoooooooo